Parkinson's disease is a common degenerative disease of the nervous system. It is more common in the elderly. The average age of onset is about 60 years old. Parkinson's disease is less common in young people under 40 years of age.
Most patients with Parkinson's disease are sporadic cases, and less than 10% of patients have a family history. The most important pathological change of Parkinson's disease is the degeneration and death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, which causes a significant decrease in the DA content of the striatum and causes disease. The exact cause of this pathological change is still unclear. Genetic factors, environmental factors, aging, oxidative stress, etc. may be involved in the degeneration and death of PD dopaminergic neurons.
Introduction to the disease
In 1817, British doctor James Parkinson first gave a detailed description of the disease. Its clinical manifestations mainly include resting tremor, bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and postural and gait disorders. At the same time, the patient may be accompanied by depression, constipation, and sleep disorders. symptom. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease mainly depends on the history, clinical symptoms and signs. There are usually no abnormal changes in the general auxiliary examinations. Drug therapy is the main treatment for Parkinson's disease. Levodopa preparations are still the most effective drugs. Surgical treatment is an effective supplement to drug treatment. Rehabilitation, psychotherapy, and good care can also improve symptoms to a certain extent. Although the currently applied treatments can only improve symptoms, cannot prevent the progression of the disease, and cannot cure the disease, effective treatment can significantly improve the quality of life of patients. The life expectancy of PD patients is not significantly different from that of the general population.
The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is still unknown. Genetic factors, environmental factors, aging, oxidative stress, etc. may be involved in the degeneration and death of PD dopaminergic neurons.
The incidence and prevalence of PD increase with age. PD usually occurs over 60 years of age, which suggests that aging is related to the disease. Data shows that with age, the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in the brain of normal adults will gradually decrease. However, the prevalence of PD in the elderly over 65 is not high. Therefore, aging is only one of the risk factors for the onset of PD.
The role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PD has been paid more and more attention by scholars. Since the discovery of the first Parkinson's disease gene α-synuclein (PARK1) in the late 1990s, there are currently at least six pathogenic genes associated with familial Parkinson's disease. However, only 5-10% of Parkinson's disease have a family history, and most of them are sporadic cases. Genetic factors are only one of the factors that cause PD.
Treatment methods such as traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture can play a positive role in improving symptoms, but it is necessary to go to a regular medical institution for treatment under the guidance of a professional physician.
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