Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the colonic mucosa and a relapse-remitting course.
Patients often experience bloody diarrhea, chronic diarrhea (or both), lower abdominal pain, urgency, and extraintestinal manifestations (especially manifestations related to colitis activity).
Diagnosis requires an endoscopic biopsy to send pathology and stool culture negative.
Recurrence is often associated with pathogen infection; therefore, feces should be collected for culture during an attack.
The goal of treatment is to induce and maintain remission. The choice and dosage form of the drug depends on the severity of the disease and the scope of the disease.
Toxic megacolon can occur, and there is a risk of intestinal perforation. Intestinal adenocarcinoma is one of the complications, occurring in 3%-5% of patients.
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease, which mainly affects the rectum and proximal colon, and even the entire colon. Ulcerative colitis is a disease with multiple causes and multiple genetic factors, and the exact cause is still unclear. Theories about etiology include environmental factors, immune deficiencies, and possible genetic predispositions.
Genetic factors may have a certain status. Psychological factors play an important role in the deterioration of the disease. The original morbid spirit such as depression or social distance is significantly improved after colectomy. Some people think that ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune disease.
At present, it is believed that the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is the result of the interaction of the host response caused by foreign substances and the influence of genes and immunity.
For patients with fulminant and severe illness, such as cases with poor medical treatment, surgical treatment will be considered.
1. Medical treatment
(1) Bed rest and systemic supportive treatment, including fluid and electrolyte balance, especially potassium supplementation, should be corrected for hypokalemia patients. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the supplement of protein to improve the nutritional status of the whole body. If necessary, total parenteral nutrition support should be given. Blood transfusions should be given to those with anemia. Milk and dairy products should be avoided when ingested by the gastrointestinal tract.
(2) Drug treatment ①Sulfasalazine salicylic acid preparations are the main therapeutic drugs, such as Edissa, Mesalazine and so on. ②The commonly used corticosteroids are prednisone or dexamethasone, but it is currently not believed that long-term hormone maintenance can prevent a recurrence.
2. Surgical treatment
20%～30% of patients with severe ulcerative colitis will eventually undergo surgery.
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