Menstrual disorders, also called irregular menstruation, is a common gynecological disease, manifested as an abnormal menstrual cycle or bleeding volume, and can be accompanied by abdominal pain and systemic symptoms before and during menstruation. The cause may be organic disease or dysfunction.
1. Emotional abnormalities cause menstrual disorders
Emotional abnormalities, such as long-term mental depression, mental stress, or major mental stimulation and psychological trauma, can cause menstrual disorders, dysmenorrhea, and amenorrhea. This is because menstruation is formed after the hormones secreted by the ovaries act on the endometrium, and the hormones secreted by the ovaries are controlled by the release hormones from the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Therefore, abnormalities in the function of the ovary, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus will affect it. Menstruation.
2. Cold stimuli cause oligomenorrhea or even amenorrhea
Women who are stimulated by cold during menstruation can cause excessive contraction of blood vessels in the pelvic cavity, which can cause oligomenorrhea and even amenorrhea. Therefore, women's daily life should pay attention to preventing cold and dampness during menstruation.
3. Irregular menstruation caused by diet
A girl’s fat accounts for at least 17% of her body weight before menarche can occur, and her body fat reaches at least 22% of her body weight to maintain a normal menstrual cycle. Excessive dieting, due to insufficient body energy intake, causing a large amount of body fat and protein to be consumed, resulting in a significant lack of estrogen synthesis, affecting menstrual cramps, and even scarce menstruation or amenorrhea. Therefore, women who pursue a slim body must not be blindly Diet.
4. Tobacco and alcohol cause menstrual disorders
Certain ingredients in cigarettes and alcohol can interfere with the physiological processes related to menstruation and cause menstrual disorders. Among women who smoke and drink excessively, 25% to 32% of them go to the hospital for treatment due to menstrual disorders. Among women who smoke more than 1 pack or drink more than 100 ml of high-grade liquor a day, menstrual disorders are three times as many as women who do not smoke and drink. Therefore, women should not smoke and drink less alcohol.
Manifestations of the menstrual cycle or bleeding volume disorders have the following conditions:
1. Irregular uterine bleeding
This is a clinical symptom, specifically including menorrhagia or long duration or dripping bleeding. It is common in uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, endometriosis and other diseases or dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
2. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Refers to abnormal uterine bleeding caused by the imbalance of the endocrine regulation system without obvious organic disease of the internal and external genitals. It is the most common type of menstrual disorder, common in puberty and menopause. Divided into two types, ovulatory and anovulatory, about 85% of cases are anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
It is a common symptom in gynecological diseases, which can be caused by various reasons. Amenorrhea is usually divided into primary and secondary. Those who are over 18 years old and have not menstruated are called primary amenorrhea; after menarche, any time before normal menopause (except during pregnancy or lactation), those who have been amenorrhea for more than 6 months are called secondary amenorrhea.
Menopause means the termination of menstruation, which means that menstruation has stopped for more than 12 months. However, the menstrual cycle and menstrual volume often change during the perimenopausal period. It is manifested as shortened menstrual cycle, mainly shortened follicular period, anovulation and increased menstrual flow.
1. Treatment for the cause
For pathological causes, corresponding treatments are needed for the specific causes.
2. Hemostasis and correction of anemia
Due to long menstrual periods and heavy menstrual flow. In addition to general hemostasis measures, hormones or curettage can be used as appropriate to stop bleeding. Give oral blood tonic or infusion therapy.
3. Adjustment cycle
Estrogen and progesterone single or combined cycle therapy can be used, and traditional Chinese medicine can also be used.
The dysfunction of one or more links in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis causes anovulation, which is one of the pathophysiological bases of menstrual disease and one of the causes of infertility. It is a problem that many patients urgently require. Although some patients ovulate but have insufficient corpus luteum function, they can also cause infertility. Choose different treatments according to the patient's condition to improve the function of the ovaries or replace part of the functions of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.
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Xu Fengqiu, Chen Jianmei. Comparison of the efficacy of different doses of progesterone in the treatment of anovulatory menstrual disorders. "WanFang", 2013
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